Israel Bombed Beirut: An Updated Report *

From RICHARD SILVERSTEIN,
writing in Tikkun Olam a few days ago.

(Updated by Lasha Darkmoon
with additional commentary)

A confidential highly-informed Israeli source has told me that Israel caused the massive explosion at the Beirut port earlier today which killed over 150 and injured over 5000.   The bombing also virtually leveled the port itself and caused massive damage throughout the city. The source received this information from an Israeli official having special knowledge concerning the matter.

Israel targeted a Hezbollah weapons depot at the port and planned to destroy it with an explosive device.  Tragically, Israeli intelligence did not perform due diligence on its target.  Thus they did not know (or if they did know, they didn’t care) that there were 2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate stored in a next-door warehouse.  The explosion at the arms depot ignited the fertilizer, causing the catastrophe that resulted.

It is, of course, unconscionable that Israeli agents did not determine everything about their target including what was in its immediate vicinity. The tragedy Israel has wreaked is a war crime of immense magnitude.

The ICC has already been investigating Israel for war crimes in Gaza since the 2014 Operation Protective Edge.  Now, I imagine it will expand the scope to incorporate today’s criminally negligent massacre.

LD: Silverstein’s claim that Israel is guilty only of criminal negligence cannot be accepted. This erroneously  assumes that Israeli intelligence was totally unaware of what thousands in Lebanon already knew: that almost 3000 tons of highly dangerous ammonium nitrate were stored in a warehouse in the port, ready to ignite and cause horrendous devastation if so much as a lighted cigarette butt came into contact with the explosive.

The idea mooted by Silverstein is that Israel would have acted more responsibly if they had known this, so all they can be accused of is criminal negligence. “The most moral army in the world”, in other words, would have acted with more self-restraint, discretion, and proportionality had they known all the hazards.

This argument spectacularly fails to convince, given that Israel believes in disproportionate retaliation and even in unprovoked preemptive strikes. This is part of their notorious Dahiya Doctrine. See final paragraph below.  [LD]   

Though Israel has regularly attacked Hezbollah and Iranian weapons depots and convoys in Syria, it rarely undertakes such brazen attacks inside Lebanon.  This attack in the country’s capital marks an even greater escalation. The sheer recklessness of this operation is astonishing.

Not surprising, though. A plan of this sort can only be contemplated amidst internal political dysfunction. Bibi is on the ropes and desperate to change the subject.  When his intelligence officers brought the plan to him he likely rubbed his hands with glee and said: “Go to it!” Israeli intelligence was naturally out to please the boss and probably cut corners in order to make the attack happen. When no one is at the wheel saying “Stop!” the boat hits an iceberg and sinks.  That’s possibly what happened here.

LD:  I sometimes wish political analysts like Silverstein wouldn’t keep referring to Benjamin Netanyahu by his affectionate nickname of “Bibi”. This makes a criminal psychopath sound like a teddy bear. After all, how can anyone seriously hate a man with a nice nickname like Bibi? The subliminal effects of cuddly nicknames for killers and other undesirables cannot be overestimated.  [LD]     

The Israeli bombing brings to mind similar bombings orchestrated by its agents in Beirut in the period before and after its 1982 invasion. Ronen Bergman’s book on Mossad assassinations and Remy Brulin have documented multiple Israeli bombings during this period which wreaked widespread death and destruction on the city’s civilian population.

In this case, the damage done was accidental.  But that will be little comfort to the thousands of Beirutis whose lives have become a living hell as a result of this Israeli crime.

As an aside, former Likud MK Moshe Feiglin tweeted a quotation from the Mishnah “celebrating” the disaster: “There never have been such great days in Israel as the 15th of Av [the day of the bombing] and Yom Kippur.”

Of course, it pains me to admit that President Trump was correct in his earlier statement that the explosion was a “terrible attack,” and that the information was conveyed to him by “his generals.” In this case, he and his generals  were right:

White House chief of staff Mark Meadows on Wednesday defended President Trump’s description of a massive explosion a day earlier in the capital of Lebanon as an “attack”…

Trump told reporters on Tuesday that he was briefed by generals who felt the explosion at a major port in Beirut was an “attack” and “a bomb of some kind.

“I can tell you the initial report was exactly what the president shared with all of you. I happen to know that he was briefed on that. The initial reports looked at an explosion,” he added. “We still have not totally ruled that out.”

“Without sharing anything classified, I’ve been able to see a lot of what has taken place there. We’ll continue to evaluate that,” Meadows continued. “Obviously, there’s no group that has claimed any responsibility but what the president shared with the American people is what he was briefed on.”

This would be highly classified information, which would mean that Trump once again exposed U.S. intelligence secrets and methods, which no president should do.  It is reminiscent of previous episodes in which he shared such highly sensitive information with Russian officials.  And it’s the reason why U.S. intelligence officials do everything in their power to keep such information from him.

LD:  Unfortunately for Silverstein’s attempt to portray Trump as a nice honest guy calling an attack  an attack, Trump did a smart U-turn in 24 hours and is now saying the opposite  of what he said earlier. A comment from an esteemed reader known as ‘Saki’ makes this clear:   

SAKI: Trump has backtracked since he made that claim [of it being a “terrible attack”]. He keeps changing his mind, as you know, from day to day. A couple of days ago he said it was a “terrible attack”, not an accident, and that his generals had told him so. He’s now singing the opposite tune. “It could be an accident,” he now says. “No one can be sure.” He’s covering his ass and trying to keep everyone guessing. (See here)

(Silverstein continues)

There could (and should) be Israeli domestic political repercussions for this disaster. As Netanyahu approved the attack, he is responsible for the consequences.

In 1982, a commission of inquiry found Ariel Sharon culpable for the invasion of Lebanon and the massacre at Sabra and Shatilla.  He was sent into political exile for a decade. At the very least, this should disqualify Bibi from leading the country. This would be the outcome in any democratic nation in which the leader was held accountable for his failures.

But alas, Israel is not such a nation, and Bibi always seems to weasel out of responsibility for his blunders. The difference here is that the Israeli leader is already under pressure due to his government’s disastrous response to Covid19 and the looming corruption trial on three counts of bribery.  This could be the tipping point.

Normally, Israelis would not bat an eye at such a massacre. They have become inured to the suffering they inflict on their Arab neighbors.  But given Netanyahu’s collapsing popularity, this could hasten his end.

Israel couldn’t have picked a worse time to inflict such suffering on Lebanon.  The country is in deep economic crisis. Businesses are going bankrupt, people have nothing to eat, politicians quarrel and blame while doing nothing. Lebanon is a basket case. Suffering is everywhere.  There is little appetite from its Arab brethren like Saudi Arabia to come to its aid. If any country did not need this added tragedy it is Lebanon.

But there you go — Israel doesn’t seem to have any sense of shame or restraint when it comes to inflicting pain on its neighbors. And it has done so endlessly in Lebanon: from the bombings in the lead-up to the 1982 invasion, the 20-year occupation of Southern Lebanon, and two wars in this century. All of this inflicted massive, ongoing damage on the country. These interventions exacerbated existing ethnic and religious divisions in the country (indeed that is Israel’s modus operandi regarding its Arab neighbors), and amplified the suffering further.

Of course, there will be doubters. Those who disbelieve my source. But to them, I point out two pieces of circumstantial evidence which are telling. Normally, if Israel has undertaken a successful terror attack (such as those against Iran) it will either refuse to comment or a senior military or political figure will say something like: While we refuse to comment, whoever did it did the world a favor.

In this case, Israel immediately denied responsibility. Even Hezbollah supposedly said Israel hadn’t caused the damage (likely protecting itself from the inevitable blame that will fall upon it for storing its weapons next to a building filled with explosive material).

The second tell-tale sign is that Israel never offers humanitarian aid to its Arab neighbors.  During the Syrian Civil War, the only group to whom Israel offered humanitarian assistance was its Islamist anti-Assad allies. Israel has never offered such aid to Lebanon, until today.  Lebanon is officially considered an enemy state in Israel.  So to have the Lebanese flag flying over Tel Aviv city hall is also extraordinary.  But the cynic in me says that it is an outrage for Israelis to all of a sudden develop pity on Lebanese after their leaders caused this debacle.  Israel has rained down death and destruction on the country for decades.  For it to feign empathy now is the height of chutzpah.

With tongue planted firmly in cheek, Haaretz’s Gideon Levy expressed shock and indignation at the prospect that Israel might have had anything to do with the tragedy.  Also, in this column he links to this blog and notes pointedly that I ascribed the Beirut blast to Israel:

The “Jewish state” has never caused such disasters, and the fall of its enemies its heart has never rejoiced. So too the IDF, the army of the Jews has never caused such devastation [as the Beirut blast], certainly never in Lebanon, even less so in Beirut! Why would the IDF destroy such infrastructure? And why bomb the Beirut port? Why would the most moral army in the world bomb such a population center? That’s why the leaders of the nation rushed to offer aid to the stricken Land of the Cedars in a Jewish-Israeli tribute that is so typically humane, lofty and full of heartfelt tears.

[But] was it not defense minister [Benny Gantz] who only last week threatened that same Lebanon with destruction of infrastructure? Didn’t the prime minister also threaten Lebanon? And how does destruction of infrastructure look in Lebanon? Just like what was seen in Lebanon on Tuesday. The sound of thunder shook the city, black smoke billowed over it, destruction and devastation, civilian blood spilled, 5,000 injured at hospital doors…

Half of Israel and the entire IDF General Staff know how to recite the acclaimed Dahiya Doctrine. Every second politician has threatened to carry it out …. And what is this sophisticated doctrine? It’s the use of disproportionate, unbridled force against infrastructure, the sowing of destruction and shedding of as much blood as possible. “Flattening” — to teach the enemy a lesson “once and for all.” The IDF has tried this more than once in the past, in Lebanon and in Gaza, and it was a dizzying success. It looks just like what was seen in Beirut on Tuesday.

A  JEWISH  SETTLER 
IN  OCCUPIED  PALESTINE

Would you accept humanitarian aid from such a country? Is there a more sickening show of hypocrisy?

25 thoughts to “Israel Bombed Beirut: An Updated Report *”

  1. “LD: Silverstein’s claim that Israel is guilty only of criminal negligence cannot be accepted. This erroneously assumes that Israeli intelligence was totally unaware of what thousands in Lebanon already knew: that almost 3000 tons of highly dangerous ammonium nitrate were stored in a warehouse in the port, ready to ignite and cause horrendous devastation if so much as a lighted cigarette butt came into contact with the explosive.”

    Indeed. Furthermore, I wouldn’t be surprised if the “Russian businessman” whose ammonium nitrate shipment ended up in storage at the port turned out to be jewish, and that pressure was subsequently exerted (e.g. bribes to corrupt Lebanese politicians) to keep the ammonium nitrate inappropriately stored there over the long term while the perpetrators waited for the “right time” to detonate it. (And if Trump’s handlers and enablers feel that he won’t be reelected in November, now might be the “right time” to push hard for the big war in the Mideast that they’ve been hoping to start).

    1. @ Harold Smith

      Absolutely. You have touched on the crux of the matter. It occurred to me too that the “Russian businessman” could be Jewish. Even if he wasn’t Jewish, it stretches credibility to breaking point to assume that Israel was blissfully ignorant that the port of Beirut was a “sitting duck” for a future terrorist attack. It seems to me, and especially to LD, that Trump and Netanyahu are playing deliberate cat-and-mouse games with Lebanon, daring Hezbollah to attack Israel with gloating provocation.

      If Hezbollah were to lose its nerve and attack, it would inevitably trigger a major confrontation which would have two immediate consequences: (a) the reelection of Trump, the great war hero coming to the rescue of valiant little Israel so falsely accused of terrorism, and (b) the total devastation by Israel and the United States of Lebanon, Iran, and possibly Syria.

      The chances of Russia or China intervening I judge to be remote, given that proof of Israeli involvement in the Beirut disaster is not 100% certain. As long as Israel can portray itself as a victim of a savage unprovoked attack by its enemies, Israel will do well out of this.

      1. I belong to a space watch group, we all have powerful telescopes and spend time skywatching, one member has it on film as a Missile attack, checking with other members we can track its progress before it hit and 100% its a missile from israel. this must go before the international courts and israel fined heavily, it got away with the stuxnet attack on japan we must make sure they dont get away with this one.

  2. @ LD

    LD: I sometimes wish political analysts like Silverstein wouldn’t keep referring to Benjamin Netanyahu by his affectionate nickname of “Bibi”. This makes a criminal psychopath sound like a teddy bear. After all, how can anyone seriously hate a man with a nice nickname like Bibi? The subliminal effects of cuddly nicknames for killers and other undesirables cannot be overestimated.

    I agree with this 100%. Any Jew who writes about Netanyahu and pretends to be criticizing him, like this American Jew Silverstein, should know better than to refer to him affectionately and indulgently as “Bibi”.

    That gives the game away.

    No matter what new outrage Boris Johnson is guilty of perpetrating in England, the Tory newspapers keep referring to him affectionately as “Boris”. You can get angry with a guy called “Johnson”, but you can’t really work yourself into a rage with a cuddly teddy bear everyone keeps calling “Boris”.

    The use of affectionate nicknames has significant propaganda value, as LD has astutely noted.

    1. If this Beirut port constituted the complete arsenal of ammunition chemicals of this country, the lesson learned will be, never put all your eggs into one basket. This basket was not even underground or out of reach of the civilian population. So many have now died or were maimed. Was that necessary and was there no other way? This incident would have have gone down as criminal negligence if our old SA Defense Force had to provide an opinion on this matter.

  3. The name of that “Russian businessman” who shipped that cargo of ammonium nitrate to Beirut is GRECHUSHKIN. The question arose whether he is Jewish or not. When in doubt if a name is Jewish, always consult the Consolidated Jewish Surname Index at http://www.avotaynu.com. The result?

    Name Databases
    594456 GERCASKIN o
    594456 GRACEZSZKIN BD
    594456 GRECHUSHKIN H
    594456 GRICHUSHKIN H
    594456 KRZECZKOMER A
    594456 KRZESZKOMER A
    594456 KRZUZKOMER

    So he is indeed a Jew. I already suspected that.

    From the article by Pepe Escobar Who Profits from the Beirut Blast?, Aug 7, Unz Review :

    “…Those by now iconic 2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate arrived in Beirut in September 2013 on board the Rhosus, a ship under Moldovan flag sailing from Batumi in Georgia to Mozambique. Rhosus ended up being impounded by Beirut’s Port State Control.

    Subsequently the ship was de facto abandoned by its owner, shady businessman Igor Grechushkin, born in Russia and a resident of Cyprus, who suspiciously “lost interest” in his relatively precious cargo, not even trying to sell it, dumping style, to pay off his debts…”

    I think that Jewish agent deliberately “lost” his explosive cargo in Beirut “for later use”, which has come now. As always : cherchez le Juif.

  4. So the jews hit the lebanese harbor building with a missile now….
    OK, that’s not too farfetched…
    Can we see some evidence?
    Maybe there was also a lot of ammo stored at the same location…. which the zion would want rid of….
    The fertilizer may have been left there as a screen for the ammunition, which was brought in later….
    Maybe it just worked out that way, that the ammo was placed there later because it was a secure location, space taken up, nobody in and out…
    Some of the videos show what appears to be a lot of ammunition cooking off in the beginning of the event….
    From the videos – there was a smaller fireworks of some kind going off for a while before the big blast….
    Hearing about the ammonium nitrate on hand, we get the impression that it was what made the big blast…
    Maybe PAT can check his CIA research library, talk to some experts, EOD guys, and find out if the fertilizer could have been cooked off by the exploding ammo, without a quantity of diesel oil being mixed with it beforehand….
    My understanding is ammonium nitrate is not explosive by itself and can not be used as an explosive agent until it has been mixed with some kind of fuel oil and also shocked by an explosive device, like a blasting cap….

    1. Correct BD.,,,,Ammonium Nitrate is an oxidizing agent and it needs a reducing agent such as a hydrocarbon to explode. Diesel, charcoal or even sugar will do the job.
      It looks as though an ammunition store was on fire first, but that would not provide the reducing agent.

  5. I’ll bet the Russian businessman is part of the Red Khazarian Mafia
    and has an Israeli passport.

    This article seems to be ‘jew’ damage control.

    The Russian Businessman is of high intrigue.

    -flek

  6. Netanyahu is gloating thinking that he has won the war with Hezbollah (if Hezbollah cannot or will not retaliate for this, there is zero chance that it will go to war with the IDF if the Israelis attack Iran). In reality, Netanyahu may have just set the stage for the destruction of the Zionist project. force the Israelis to either ask for a ceasefire or over run the missile launching sites in Lebanon. Even over running the missile sites in Lebanon might not work as Iran and Syria are almost certain to join in the war if the IDF moves deep into Lebanon.

    The Lebanese people endure what they must…But the Israeli population is entirely different. The IDF is acutely aware that it must maintain a level of safety and “normalcy” for the Jewish population, not just to encourage Jews in the diaspora to emigrate to Israel, but to prevent those already there from leaving. One thing we can say with some confidence, Jews will not suffer privations in Israel for long. They will simply escape the privations by returning to the diaspora from whence they came. Once such an exodus begins, it will feed on itself as more and more Jew decide to opt for comfortable and safe living in the West.

    Previously, Hezbollah was deterred from serious attacks on Israeli infrastructure. Not so much by the IDF itself as by world opinion. If Hezbollah had attacked Haifa’s port last month, it would have been seen as aggression. Today, nobody other than Jew could view such attack on Israel as anything but completely justifiable…all thanks to Bibi. If I were Nasrallah, I would be putting my pieces in place to destroy Haifa. The next war with Israel is here and now. Hezbollah may never get this kind of opportunity again.

    1. Pat, those one of a kind F-35I (and their one of a kind sensors and missiles) haven’t been sitting around gathering dust and breaking down the last two years, have they? No they have not. They’ve been flying the wheels off of them as per bidness as usual..
      (how they roll)

  7. PAT
    “It seems the nitrate was set on fire to guide the ‘heat-seeking’ missile to the target.”
    OK, that’s possible… but what made the explosion – that little rocket?
    apparently there was only one rocket, because there was only one explosion…
    if the fertilizer didn’t explode, what could have been in the warhead to make an explosion so powerful?
    BOBM
    good post, and could be…

    “Netanyahu is gloating thinking that he has won the war with Hezbollah (if Hezbollah cannot or will not retaliate for this, there is zero chance that it will go to war with the IDF if the Israelis attack Iran). In reality, Netanyahu may have just set the stage for the destruction of the Zionist project. force the Israelis to either ask for a ceasefire or over run the missile launching sites in Lebanon. Even over running the missile sites in Lebanon might not work as Iran and Syria are almost certain to join in the war if the IDF moves deep into Lebanon.”
    they’re not going to try that again, not without the direct participation of the usa, which seems a bit of a stretch, even with the shabbos trump in power… nobody wants ww3… and that’s the zion’s problem – how do they wack hezbollah for good and steal the litani river without that happening?
    “The Lebanese people endure what they must…But the Israeli population is entirely different. The IDF is acutely aware that it must maintain a level of safety and “normalcy” for the Jewish population, not just to encourage Jews in the diaspora to emigrate to Israel, but to prevent those already there from leaving.”
    it’s probably a pretty depraved place by now, and the extortion program the general population runs on the state will be right out of the basic dems and big rotten city blacks robbery going on in the usa since lbj…
    “One thing we can say with some confidence, Jews will not suffer privations in Israel for long. They will simply escape the privations by returning to the diaspora from whence they came. Once such an exodus begins, it will feed on itself as more and more Jew decide to opt for comfortable and safe living in the West.”
    It was very difficult to get the jews of the world to move there in the first place, back when the zionist were only about 3% of the jewish population and well disliked by the non-zionist majority… the herzl crowd were not allowed by the non-zionist jews to have their global convention in london back in 1880s decade, they moved it to basel… Jews in general were pretty well off in europe and russia in the early decades of the last century, not interested in moving to palestine, making the desert bloom, fk that… it took the rothen’s installation of hitler to co-opt the race based national socialist movement in germany to bust all the jews out of their homes… read edwin black – “the transfer agreement”, and lenni brenner – “51 documents”… it was the zion who put the jews on the boxcars, as was shown in “shindler’s list”… most likely the non-zionist ones perished in the ig farben camps, worked to death…
    “Previously, Hezbollah was deterred from serious attacks on Israeli infrastructure. Not so much by the IDF itself as by world opinion. If Hezbollah had attacked Haifa’s port last month, it would have been seen as aggression. Today, nobody other than Jew could view such attack on Israel as anything but completely justifiable…all thanks to Bibi. If I were Nasrallah, I would be putting my pieces in place to destroy Haifa. The next war with Israel is here and now. Hezbollah may never get this kind of opportunity again.”
    I wouldn’t bet too much on adverse public opinion here… I’m afraid most people in the usa still believe everything their television’s tell them, and if it doesn’t tell them, they don’t know it… americans in general still think the arabs attacked the jews in the 6 day war, never heard of the uss liberty, never heard of the massacres at deir yassin etc. in 1948, never heard of building 7 and don’t even know the israelis take $4,000,000,000 every year from the us treasury…
    https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20180409-remembering-the-massacre-at-deir-yassin/
    the masks might well be moved up a few inches… they will think the explosion was an accident, due to the arabs’ negligence – you saw the demonstrations saying so, right? they’ve all been brainwashed into the ‘little israel’ bs, where the heroic jews bravely stand up against the murderous arabs, maintaining the only ‘democracy’ in the area…
    i guess though the hit lists of those who know too much are already made…

  8. LAST WEEK…. Maximum Biloney needs to see this!! This proves what I have stated here for years…. US arms companies in Russia are supplying arms to Israel in Russian planes!!!!

    What immediately jumped out at me was in the first paragraph:

    **The Antonov An 225 arrived at Israel’s Ben-Gurion international airport on Monday evening, carrying US military trucks to be equipped with Iron Dome air system.

    “US cargo plane lands in Israel in support of the regime’s Iron Dome!!”

    US Army Futures Command has confirmed that a cargo plane has landed in Israel to support the regime’s so-called Iron Dome system.

    **The Antonov An 225 arrived at Israel’s Ben-Gurion international airport on Monday evening, carrying US military trucks to be equipped with Iron Dome air system.

    American firm Raytheon Technologies and Israeli-based Rafael Advanced Defense Systems have reportedly formed a joint venture to build the Iron Dome missile system in the United States.

    The Iron Dome has been co-developed by American company Raytheon and Israeli firm Rafael. It is partly manufactured in the United States. It is claimed to be capable of detecting, assessing and intercepting a variety of shorter-range targets such as rockets, artillery and mortars.
    http://www.presstv.com/Detail/2020/08/05/631170/US-cargo-plane-lands-in-Israel-in-support-of-Iron-Dome

    1. People still don’t understand that we are ruled by the jews in the whole world who pretend not being jewish.
      This masquerade is done for the slaves, especially the Goyim, who don’t understand the jewish scheme. The wild Max super alpha should know this with his “alpha ” IQ. Maybe Max, sounds jewish to me may become the messias for the Goyim, what a joke especially as he is a big fan of “jesus”. Max don’t you know that there is no evidence at all that “christ “ever existed. Just a jewish invention, a trojan horse to destroy the Goyim. By the way “christianity”has always been ruled and guided by the jews. So “christianity”was never “infiltrated”as gullible “christians”would like to think for their peace of mind. The situation is that “christianity”is passe as a tool for the jews in a technocratic dictatorial regime we are heading to. “Christianity”is not essential anymore for the jews to rule!!! Get it.

      1. As much as they could Jews made Christianity a tool to rule the goyim with,as they do with everything,but it is not essentially that and is made from some human philosophies ,not the snapping crocodile Jew soul.

    2. When “National security” surveillance can tell the time of day from a wrist watch on earth to a satellite far above us the world’s media and ALL POLITICAL LEADER of the majority of countries talk about fertilizer illegally stored and exploding trough neglect in port facilities, something has gone very wrong. Political leaders of the world either do not have influence over their own actions, their tongues and the state’s intelligence agencies or are 100% complicit in crimes against the same humanity they “care” for through demockracy. There is no middle way to forgive genocide and murder of specific tribes! That humanity on Earth is leaderless shows itself on a daily basis while all “intelligent creatures of mankind” dwell in argumentation against each other over and over again.

  9. The shit hole in the Middle East can cry me a river for throwing a fit over Lebanon rejection of Israeli offer for help. Lebanese people do not need fake sympathy from Israel. Their sentiment can best be describe by Jackie Chan’s infamous phrase, “No, thank you. I would rather shove crayons in my eyes.” If Israel is genuine about being a good neighbor to Lebanon, it can start tomorrow by 1) quit violating the Lebanese airspace on a daily basis, 2) apologize to Lebanon for its past war crimes committed there, and 3) pay Lebanon restitution for all the killing and destruction it inflicted upon Lebanese during the 1978, 1982, and 2006 wars.

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